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2017

Mon, 23 Jan 2017
Seminar (1) : The birth of the discipline of biochemistry - Why did it wait to the 20th century?

Time: 10.30 AM - 11.15 AM

Venue: Cysteine, Level 7 (30 Biopolis Street, Matrix)

Speaker: Prof. David Engelberg, Associate Professor, Department of Biological Chemistry, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem / Adjunct Professor, Department of Microbiology, The National University of Singapore (NUS).

Abstract

The 1907 Nobel Prize for Chemistry, awarded to Eduard Buchner, marked the recognition of the scientific community in the discipline, then in its infancy, known as biochemistry. By that time, other biological disciplines, such as botany, microbiology, anatomy and metabolism had already been studied for hundreds of years. Even modern scientific fields, including genetics and immunology, evolution (Darwin's The Origin of Species was published in 1859) and Einsteinian physics (the Theory of Special Relativity' was published in 1905) were already well accepted and very active.

In the lecture I will discuss possible conceptual reasons for the late appearance of biochemistry. I will focus on erroneous notions on the nature of life that blinded scholars for thousands of years and hindered the development of this critical field of science.

About The Speaker
The molecular basis of inflammatory diseases is complex and far from being understood. Unlike the case of cancer, in which genes and mutations that cause the disease were identified, the trigger and the etiology of chronic inflammation is unknown. However, several biochemical pathways are abnormally overactive in most inflammatory diseases and serve as prime suspects for causing the disease. Such critical pathways are those of the p38 stress/MAP kinase and the ERK MAP kinase. Yet, although considered a target for therapy and is strongly associated with inflammation, the exact role of p38 and ERK in inflammation is not known. It is not even known if their activation would be sufficient to impose inflammation in cells, animals or humans. Such experiments cannot be performed because it is not known how to activate p38 individually in cells or animals. My group is focusing on engineering p38 and other MAP kinases to render them intrinsically active. Using specifically designed Molecular Evolution approaches we were able to isolate intrinsically active variants of p38 and ERK. When these engineered molecules are expressed in biological systems, they are spontaneously active, namely, without the need to expose the system to any stimulation. Thus, only the transgenic molecule is active disclosing most accurately the very specific functions of p38. Using transgenic cells and mice expressing these molecules we shall now be able to answer the question of the linkage between p38, ERK and inflammatory diseases.

Host
Dr. Frank Eisenhaber, Executive Director


 
 
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